密码极客 | 国内最权威的区块链技术创投社群

比特币前传:黑客和密码朋克文化是这样诞生的(下)

云上春野云上春野 2019-08-27 12,308 次 收藏0

划重点

 

在本节中,我们介绍了黑客文化及其围绕一组特定设计原则和价值创建软件的方法。我们说明了黑客文化是如何发展出一种组织模式的。并且,我们提出,这些模式可以使非专业人士和非学术人士更容易使用计算机软件,从而破坏了严格许可和封闭源代码所造成的社会分裂。另外,我们还通过 Linux 和 Apache 等软件在基础层面上展示了免费和开源方法的成功。

 

最后,我们展现了商业软件公司是如何试图模仿开放式工作分配的方法。利用自由开源软件,黑客运动有效地摧毁了研究和开发的机构垄断 [120] 。这些都成为了比特币诞生的基础。

 

希望阅读该报告全文的作者,可以访问 此处 获得报告全文。

 

1、 Poynder, John. Literary extracts from English and other works; collected during half a century. London: John Hatchard & Son. 1844. https://iterative.tools/2QV38gn.

 

2、 Reddit.com. https://iterative.tools/2QVu7aI.

 

3、 “Tech Won\'t Build It: The New Tech Resistance,” MIT Panel Discussion, July 2018, https://iterative.tools/2zsbbL1.

 

4、 Hsu, Jeremy. “Engineers Say ‘No Thanks’ to Silicon Valley Recruiters, Citing Ethical Concerns.” IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News, IEEE Spectrum, 9 Aug. 2018, https://iterative.tools/2xzPDus.

 

5、 “Is This the Beginning of a Tech Worker Revolution?” KQED, August 27, 2018, https://iterative.tools/2QWjTI2.

 

6、 Bergen, Mark. “Google Renounces AI Weapons; Will Still Work With Military,” June 7, 2018. https://iterative.tools/2QFXAW9.

 

7、 Conger, Kate, and Daisuke Wakabayashi. “Google Employees Protest Secret Work on Censored Search Engine for China.” The New York Times, August 16, 2018, https://iterative.tools/2LT6Tz2.

 

8、 Matsakis, Louise. “Ex-Microsoft employees sue over PTSD from reviewing disturbing content,” Mashable, January 14, 2017, https://iterative.tools/2IdMd4A.

 

9、 Swisher, Kara. “The Expensive Education of Mark Zuckerberg and Silicon Valley.” The New York Times, The New York Times, August 2, 2018, https://iterative.tools/2MZReyv.

 

10、 Wong, Queenie. “Menlo Park, East Palo Alto Residents Rally against Facebook, Amazon amid Gentrification Concerns.” The Mercury News, April 6, 2017, https://iterative.tools/2OPyy6m.

 

11、 Conger, Kate, and Sheera Frenkel. “Dozens at Facebook Unite to Challenge Its \'Intolerant\' Liberal Culture.” The New York Times, August 28, 2018, https://iterative.tools/2NDwfGX.

 

12、 Tayan, Brian, and Stanford Graduate School of Business. “The Wells Fargo Cross-Selling Scandal.” The Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance and Financial Regulation, https://iterative.tools/2OeVmQ4.

 

13、 Miller, Ron. “Equifax Data Leak Could Involve 143 Million Consumers.” TechCrunch, September 7, 2017, https://iterative.tools/2QVRrG8.

 

14、 Israni, Ellora Thadaney. “When an Algorithm Helps Send You to Prison.” The New York Times, October 26, 2017, https://iterative.tools/2NHgcrS.

 

15、 Bilton, Nick. “‘We\'re F--Ked’: There Is Only One Antidote to Silicon Valley\'s Ills... Their Engineers.” The Hive, Vanity Fair, August 31, 2018, https://iterative.tools/2OMit1f.

 

16、 Mitcham, Carl. Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. Pages 1152-1153. https://iterative.tools/2xO8QIh.

 

17、 Bemis, Edward W. “The Homestead Strike.” Journal of Political Economy, v.2 no.3, 1894, pp. 369–396. https://iterative.tools/2QRf8iO.

 

18、 Waller, William T. “The Evolution of the Veblenian Dichotomy: Veblen, Hamilton, Ayres, and Foster.” Journal of Economic Issues, vol. 16, no. 3, 1982, pp. 757–771. https://iterative.tools/2NGiuHF.

 

19、 Ibid.

 

20、 Mumford, Lewis. Technics and Civilization. Harcourt Brace and Co., 1934. https://iterative.tools/2Q4wXK9.

 

21、 “Fordism & Postfordism,” Willamette University, https://iterative.tools/2MWSwuc.

 

22、 “PBS Presentation: The Great Depression,” April 2013, https://iterative.tools/2DqJJRS.

 

23、 Galbraith, John Kenneth, “The Mayfair Set: Destroy the Technostructure,” BBC, 1999. https://iterative.tools/2NDEwLa.

 

24、 Ibid.

 

25、 Galbraith, John Kenneth, The New Industrial State. Mifflin, 1971. https://iterative.tools/2Q4UxWX.

 

26、 Coase, and R. H. “Industrial Organization: A Proposal for Research.” NBER, University of Chicago Press, https://iterative.tools/2NExMMM.

 

27、 Coase, R. H. “The Firm, the Market, and the Law,” National Bureau of Economics, 1987, Page 7. https://iterative.tools/2zrqIdJ.

 

28、 Rifkin, Jeremy. The Zero Marginal Cost Society. Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. Page 82. https://iterative.tools/2QTQIoR.

 

29、 Berle, Adolph. The Modern Corporation and Private Property. Routledge, 1991. https://iterative.tools/2NGle7V.

 

30、 Ibid.

 

31、 Burnham, James. The Managerial Revolution. Penguin Books, 1945. Page 118. https://iterative.tools/2zrrpnl.

 

32、 Mintzberg, Henry. Power in and around Organizations. Prentice-Hall, 1983. Page 136. https://iterative.tools/2xQIYv6.

 

33、 Pettigrew, Andrew M. The Politics of Organizational Decision Making. Routledge, 2009. Page 77. https://iterative.tools/2xQIYv6

 

34、 Ibid, page 129.

 

35、 Ibid, page 133.

 

36、 Ibid.

 

37、 Argyris, Chris. Overcoming Organizational Defenses: Facilitating Organizational Learning. Prentice-Hall, 1990. Page 7. https://iterative.tools/2IdG6xj.

 

38、 “Scott Adams,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scott_Adams.

 

39、 Dilbert by Scott Adams, Nov. 14, 2014. https://iterative.tools/2QWDE28.

 

40、 Mintzberg, page 130.

 

41、 Ibid.

 

42、 Ibid, page 132.

 

43、 Ibid.

 

44、 Castro, Jose Dieguez. Introducing Linux Distros. Apress, 2016. Page 10. https://iterative.tools/2NDOQTo.

 

45、 Gehring, Verena V. The Internet in Public Life. Rowman & Littlefield, 2004. https://iterative.tools/2pA6Fo0.

 

46、 Richard Stallman, “Hackers: Wizards of the Electronic Age.” YouTube, 1986, https://iterative.tools/2xAzdlI.

 

47、 “The Hacker Community and Ethics: An Interview with Richard M. Stallman” Gnu.org, 2002, https://iterative.tools/2Q4LTId.

 

48、 “The Hacker Ethic,” New York Times, 2001, https://iterative.tools/2pxa7j2.

 

49、 “Luddite,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luddite.

 

50、 Soderberg, Johan. Hacking Capitalism: the free and open source software movement. Routledge, 2008. Page 2. https://iterative.tools/2O8Avhe.

 

51、 Himanen, Pekka. The Hacker Ethic: a Radical Approach to the Philosophy of Business. Random House, 2002. https://iterative.tools/2MWXvLq.

 

52、 Himanen, Pekka. “The Hacker Ethic,” New York Times, 2001, https://iterative.tools/2pxa7j2.

 

53、 Spence, A. Michael, RAND Corp., \"The learning curve and competition\". Bell Journal of Economics, Spring 1981, 12 (1): pages 49–70. https://iterative.tools/2xP5EvX.

 

54、 Gilbert, R.J., and Newbery, David, \"Preemptive patenting and the persistence of monopoly.” The American Economic Review. June 1982, 72 (3): pages 514–526. https://iterative.tools/2Ob9lpV.

 

55、 Gabriel, Richard. “The Rise of “Worse Is Better,” 1991, https://iterative.tools/2ONxFuV.

 

56、 Ante, Spencer. Creative Capital: Georges Doriot and the Birth of Venture Capital. Harvard Business Review Press, 2008. https://iterative.tools/2Rtk1z8.

 

57、 Fogel, Karl. Producing Open Source Software. O’Reilly Media, 2006. Page 7. https://iterative.tools/2zshkXn.

 

58、 Cowe, Roger. “Jim Slater Obituary.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 22 Nov. 2015, https://iterative.tools/2xBUkUy.

 

59、 Staff, Investopedia. “Michael Milken.” Investopedia, 15 May 2018, https://iterative.tools/2IcxjLU.

 

60、 “The Mayfair Set: Episode 3, Destroy the Technostructure,” BBC, 1999. https://iterative.tools/2NDEwLa.

 

61、 Warren, Tom, “Microsoft Axes its Controversial Stack Ranking System,” Verge.com, Nov 12, 2013, https://iterative.tools/2wDAtTN

 

62、 “Why Does Google Stack Rank Its Employees despite the High Rate of Disapproval and Controversy within the Company?” Quora, https://iterative.tools/2DqMHpa.

 

63、 Nisen, Max. “A Lawsuit Claims Microsoft\'s Infamous Stack Rankings Made Things Worse for Women.” Quartz, 17 Sept. 2015, https://iterative.tools/2OMnkzC.

 

64、 Korytko, Andrew. “Do We Need Scheduled Stack-Ranking Anymore?” Forbes Magazine, 12 Dec. 2017, https://iterative.tools/2DspRNX.

 

65、 “Taking Tesla Private.” Tesla, Inc, 8 Aug. 2018, https://iterative.tools/2Q77XlB.

 

66、 “Business Roundtable Supports Move Away from Short-Term Guidance,” Business Roundtable, https://iterative.tools/2Oflg6g.

 

67、 “What Is Free Software and Why Is It so Important for Society?” Free Software Foundation, https://iterative.tools/2pAnnUf.

 

68、 Ibid.

 

69、 “The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer\'s operating system, with complete control over everything in the system. On most systems, it is one of the first programs loaded on start-up (after the bootloader). It handles the rest of start-up as well as input/output requests from software, translating them into data-processing instructions for the central processing unit. It handles memory and peripherals like keyboards, monitors, printers, and speakers.” “Kernel,” Wikipedia. https://iterative.tools/2A0yQlQ.

 

70、 \"Facebook–Cambridge Analytica Data Scandal.\" Wikipedia. August 28, 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facebook–Cambridge_Analytica_data_scandal.

 

71、 “Facebook says 50 million accounts were breached,” USA Today, September 28, 2018. https://iterative.tools/2NvhxNb.

 

72、 “GNU Manifesto,” GNU.org, https://iterative.tools/2DtyMyU.

 

73、 Ibid.

 

74、 Waller, William Jr., “The Evolution of the Veblenian Dichotomy: Veblen, Hamilton, Ayres, and Foster,” Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. XVI, No. 3, Sept. 1982. https://iterative.tools/2LPDjdL.

 

75、 Raymond, Eric, “The Cathedral & the Bazaar,” Snowball Publishing, 1997. https://iterative.tools/2QTJIbE.

 

76、 Hill, Benjamin. “To Fork or Not to Fork,” https://iterative.tools/2wAHsMY, 2005.

 

77、 “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace.” Wikimedia Foundation, 2018, https://iterative.tools/2CxCXs6.

 

78、 Madrigal, Alexis C. “Weekend Poem: All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 19 Sept. 2011, https://iterative.tools/2CgGY4W.

 

79、 “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace, Episode 1: Love and Power.” Vimeo, 29 July 2018, https://iterative.tools/2NBUAgu.

 

80、 “Cyberspace and Power,” BBC, produced by Adam Curtis, 2017. https://iterative.tools/2xD4J2q.

 

81、 “Hypernormalisation,” BBC, produced by Adam Curtis, 2016. https://iterative.tools/2zsX6gb.

 

82、 Barbrook, Richard, “The Californian Ideology,” 1995, https://iterative.tools/2N8BzBh.

 

83、 Barlow, John Perry, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Perry_Barlow, Wikipedia.

 

84、 “Hypernormalisation,” BBC, produced by Adam Curtis, 2016. https://iterative.tools/2zsX6gb.

 

85、 May, Timothy. “The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto,” Satoshi Nakamoto Institute, 1992, https://iterative.tools/2OWlR9G.

 

86、 Bernstein vs United States, Wikipedia, https://iterative.tools/2Ihlapg.

 

87、 Narayanan, Arvind. “What Happened to the Crypto Dream?” IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 11, no. 3, 2013, pp. 68–71. https://iterative.tools/2QUmRNb.

 

88、 Ibid.

 

89、 Cypherpunk, Wikimedia, https://iterative.tools/2wGBABZ.

 

90、 Manne, Robert. \"The Cypherpunk Revolutionary.\" The Monthly. December 09, 2015. https://iterative.tools/2O9XJDs.

 

91、 Ibid.

 

92、 Manne, Robert. \"The Cypherpunk Revolutionary.\" The Monthly. December 09, 2015. https://iterative.tools/2O9XJDs.

 

93、 Rogway, Philip, “The Moral Quality of Cryptographic Work,” 2015, https://iterative.tools/2QTdflX.

 

94、 Dannen, Chris, “Inside Github’s Super-Lean Management Strategy and How It Drives Innovation,” Fast Company, https://iterative.tools/2NcHGo8, 2013.

 

95、 “Scope creep,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scope_creep.

 

96、 Soderberg, page 2.

 

97、 “The Human Cost of Tech Debt,” DaedTech, https://iterative.tools/2IdylHI.

 

98、 “Anti-Pattern,” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, August 29, 2018.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-pattern.

 

99、 Church, Michael, “What Is Open Allocation?”, https://iterative.tools/2xBeVIq.

 

100、 Karim R. Lakhani and Robert G Wolf, MIT Sloan School of Management and The Boston Consulting Group, “Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free/Open Source Software Projects,” edited by J. Feller, B. Fitzgerald, S. Hissam, and K. R. Lakhani, MIT Press, 2005. https://iterative.tools/2NKeOQT.

 

101、 “Should We Celebrate the Anniversary of Open Source?” Open Source Initiative, https://iterative.tools/2xM1HIr.

 

102、 “Open Source Misses the Point,” GNU.org, https://iterative.tools/2zs6MaN

 

103、 Candeub, Adam. “Will Microsoft\'s Embrace Smother GitHub?” The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, June 24, 2018. https://iterative.tools/2Q1Omnq.

 

104、 “Ballmer: Linux is a cancer,” The Register, June 2, 2001, https://iterative.tools/2IfzzSy.

 

105、 “History: The Agile Manifesto.” Agilemanifesto.org, https://iterative.tools/2Q4Y9sd.

 

106、 Finley, Klint. “Linux Took Over the Web. Now, It\'s Taking Over the World.” Wired, June 3, 2017. https://iterative.tools/2xALuGM.

 

107、 “How Bloomberg Integrated Learning-to-Rank into Apache Solr.” Tech At Bloomberg, January 23, 2017. https://iterative.tools/2MOeQuY.

 

108、 “What Are the Differences between Mac OS and Linux?” Ask Ubuntu, https://iterative.tools/2NGclqB.

 

109、 Hayden James. \"81% of All Smartphones Are Powered by Linux,\" HaydenJames.com, July 19, 2018. https://iterative.tools/2O9kHuB.

 

110、 Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. “Linux Is under Your Hood.” ZDNet, April 11, 2018. https://iterative.tools/2ztfndl.

 

111、 “Android Auto Coming to Audi Dashboards, No Phone Required.” Android Authority. Android Authority, May 25, 2017. https://iterative.tools/2N9TIi0.

 

112、 Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. “Tesla Starts to Release Its Cars\' Open-Source Linux Software Code.” ZDNet. ZDNet, May 30, 2018. https://iterative.tools/2wMZkVl.

 

113、 Soderberg, page 15.

 

114、 How Spotify Works, Part 1: https://iterative.tools/spotify1.

 

115、 How Spotify Works, Part 2: https://iterative.tools/spotify2.

 

116、 “Six FAQs about developing a responsive organization,” Microsoft.com, https://iterative.tools/2wFtgCE

 

117、 Mims, Christopher. “Google Engineers Insist 20% Time Is Not Dead-It\'s Just Turned into 120% Time,” Quartz, August 20, 2013. https://iterative.tools/2Q4YNWF.

 

118、 Low, Jonathan. “How Digital Maturation Is Transforming Organizational Leadership.” The Low-Down, https://iterative.tools/2Dusb7f.

 

119、 Lakhani and Wolf, “Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free/Open Source Software Projects.” https://iterative.tools/2NKeOQT.

 

120、 Soderberg, page 4.

密码极客是一群来自前阿里、蚂蚁金服的技术人员与阿里创业帮一起发起的区块链技术创投社群,也是杭州最大的区块链技术创业社群,截止目前,社群技术人员超过2000位,社群成员超过10万。扫描二维码加入我们。

本文系作者个人观点,转载请注明出处!
喜欢 0
支付宝扫码打赏
微信打赏

相关文章

更多

发布评论

共0条评论